Psalm 110 Sit at My Right Hand A Psalm of David. (1) The LORD says to my Lord: "Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool." (2) The LORD sends forth from Zion your mighty scepter. Rule in the midst of your enemies! (3) Your people will offer themselves freely on the day of your power, in holy garments; from the womb of the morning, the dew of your youth will be yours. (4) The LORD has sworn and will not change his mind, "You are a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek." (5) The Lord is at your right hand; he will shatter kings on the day of his wrath. (6) He will execute judgement among the nations, filling them with corpses; he will shatter chiefs over the wide earth. (7) He will drink from the brook by the way; therefore he will life up his head. ESV
This psalm is pure gospel; it is only, and wholly, concerning Christ, the Messiah promised to the fathers and expected by them.Matthew Henry, English minister, 1662-1714
Psalm 110 is titled, The Lord Appoints a King (ICB), The LORD Gives Dominion to the King (NASB), Announcement of the Messiah’s Reign (NKJV), and Sit at My Right Hand (ESV), among others.
David is the author. If anyone wishes to argue, we will just look to the words of Jesus in the New Testament which we will discuss shortly.
May the Spirit who spoke by the man after God’s own heart give us eyes to see the hidden mysteries of this marvellous Psalm, in which every word has an infinity of meaning.Charles Spurgeon, English preacher, 1834-1892
The LORD said to my Lord, "Sit in the place of honor at my right hand until I humble your enemies, making them a footstool under your feet." The LORD will extend your powerful kingdom from Jerusalem; you will rule over your enemies. When you go to war, your people will serve you willingly. You are arrayed in holy garments, and your strength will be renewed each day like the morning dew. Psalm 110:1-3 NLT
The LORD (Yahweh) said to my Lord (Adonai). David was a prophet. God spoke to him words that he did not always have the ability to see or understand. Thankfully David was also a writer, and he wrote those prophetic words down so that now we can see how the words pointed to Jesus. Yahweh or God the Father is speaking to Adonai, Jesus. We know this is true because of Jesus’s words as recorded in the book of Matthew.
Then, surrounded by the Pharisees, Jesus asked them a question: "What do you think about the Messiah? Whose son is he?" They replied, "He is the son of David." Jesus responded, "Then why does David, speaking under the inspiration of the Spirit, call the Messiah 'my Lord'? For David said, 'The LORD said to my Lord, sit in the place of honor at my right hand until I humble your enemies beneath your feet.' Since David called the Messiah 'my Lord,' how can the Messiah be his son?" No one could answer him. And after that, no one dared to ask him anymore questions. Matthew 22:41-46 NLT
Psalm 110:1 is quoted a number of times in the New Testament. On the day of Pentecost, Peter stood before the crowd,
"God raised Jesus from the dead, and we are all witnesses of this. Now he is exalted to the place of highest honor in heaven, at God's right hand. And the Father, as he had promised, gave him the Holy Spirit to pour out upon us, just as you see and hear today. For David himself never ascended into heaven, yet he said, 'The LORD said to my Lord, "Sit in the place of honor at my right hand until I humble your enemies, making them a footstool under your feet."' "So let everyone in Israel know for certain that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, to be both Lord and Messiah!" Acts 2:32-36 NLT
For now, Jesus sits at the right hand of the Father. His work on earth is done. He waits for the day that God will send Him forth in a great battle over evil when He will rid the earth of it and bring His children home. For now, the work of Jesus’s life and ministry flows out from Jerusalem.
The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. Psalm 110:3 KJV
Jesus will rule all nations. All people will bow before Him. For now, His word, the Gospel spreads, like a “rod of strength out of Zion.” The work He did throughout His life as a man spreads like wildfire across the land and throughout the peoples, from generation to generation. And when God arouses Jesus to return, all of His children will be gathered to Him.
The LORD has taken an oath and will not break his vow: "You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek." Psalm 110:4 NLT
At the center of Psalm 110, this verse makes a power statement. The LORD (Yahweh, God the Father) promises something. What is His promise?
This is the oath of Yahweh (specifically, God the Father) regarding God, the Son. He vowed that the Messiah had an eternal priesthood, and that it was after the pattern (order) of Melchizedek, who is mentioned in a single account in the Old Testament (Genesis 14:18-20).Pastor David Guzik, http://www.enduringword.com
And Melchizedek, the king of Salem and a priest of God Most High, brought Abram some bread and wine. Melchizedek blessed Abram with this blessing: "Blessed by Abram by God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth. And blessed be God Most High, who has defeated your enemies for you." Then Abram gave Melchizedek a tenth of all the goods he had recovered. Genesis 14:18-20 NLT
God established the priesthood of Aaron in the Old Testament. Aaron and his descendants served in the tabernacle and the temple for many generations. In the promise in Psalm 110, God established another priesthood in the order of Melchizedek. Jesus, the Messiah, is living, active High Priest of God’s people in the order of Melchizedek.
Melchizedek: is an old Canaanite name meaning, “My King is (the god) Sedek” or “My King is Righteousness.” — Salem is probably Jerusalem. (Britannica)
Hebrews 6 and 7 provide more information of the Old Testament account of Melchizedek.
Jesus has already gone in there for us. He has become our eternal High Priest in the order of Melchizedek. Hebrews 6:20 NLT This Melchizedek was king of Salem and priest of God Most High. He met Abraham returning from the defeat of the kings and blessed him, and Abraham gave him a tenth of everything. First, the name Melchizedek means "king of righteousness"; then also, "king of Salem" means "king of peace." Without father or mother, without genealogy, without beginning of days or end of life, resembling the Son of God, he remains a priest forever. Hebrews 7:1-3 NIV but because Jesus lives forever, he has a permanent priesthood. Therefore, he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them. Such a high priest truly meets our need- one who is holy, blameless, pure, set apart from sinners, exalted above the heavens. Hebrews 7:24-26 NIV
Psalm 110:4 also tells us this “priest in the order of Melchizedek” is a priest forever. Since men die, the Levitical priests of old are gone now, this High Priest must only be Jesus Himself. And when Abraham met the High Priest of Melchizedek, Levi’s parents were not even born yet. Abraham was Levi’s great grandfather.
The Lord stands at your right hand to protect you. He will strike down many kings when his anger erupts. He will punish the nations and fill their lands with corpses; he will shatter heads over the whole earth. But he himself will be refreshed from brooks along the way. He will be victorious. Psalm 110:5-7 NLT
These last verses speak of the final judgment, when God the Father will send Jesus the Son back to earth to redeem His children and put an end pain, death, and evil forever.
Those who are victorious will sit with me on my throne, just as I was victorious and sat with my Father on his throne. Revelation 3:21 NLT Then I saw the angel standing in the sun, shouting to the vultures flying high in the sky: "Come! Gather together for the great banquet God has prepared. Come and eat the flesh of kings, generals, and strong warriors; of horses and their riders; and of all humanity, both free and slave, small and great." Revelation 19:17-19 NLT
When Jesus returns, He will free all of creation from the bondage of evil. He will rid the earth of corruption, and He will free God’s children finally. Every knee will bow, and every tongue confess His name throughout the earth. And on that day, “He will refresh Himself from brooks along the way.” Jesus will return to the earth as a man, as the Son of God, and He will be the greatest warrior the universe has ever known. He will lift up His head and be victorious.
No matter the worry and pain and trials of this world, what you face today, God is good. He is near. You are loved. Someday, He will return and will drink of the streams as a great warrior of God. He will lead God’s legions of angels, death and pain and evil will be destroyed, and we will live in the eternal light of the Father for all eternity.
Father in heaven, your words from Psalm 110 wash over us today. You are good and faithful. Our home is not here in this broken world; you want so much more for us. May we keep our eyes on you and on your promises, and may we remember today that Jesus will return. Give us strength and love to face the day. Amen.